Measles Outbreak in HCMC

By: City Pass Guide

Several cases of measles have appeared in Ho Chi Minh City in recent days, in the context of an epidemic in Vietnam.

Measles is a highly contagious viral infection. Transmission is mainly by air.

The virus is transmitted either directly to a patient or sometimes indirectly because of the persistence of the virus in the air or on a surface contaminated by nasopharyngeal secretions.

Clinical signs

After exposure to the virus, the onset of a rash manifests after a delay of 14 days on average (7 to 18 days).

The invasion phase lasts 2 to 4 days and is marked by the appearance of a fever at 38.5°C, respiratory signs (cough, rhinitis, conjunctivitis) accompanied by a general malaise with abnormal physical weakness or lack of energy.

Measles Outbreak in HCMCImage source: medicalnewstoday.com

The rash lasts 5-6 days. The contagious phase begins the day before the appearance of the first respiratory signs and extends until 5 days after the onset of the eruption.

Complicated forms are more common in patients less than 1-year-old and over 20 years old.

The leading cause of death is pneumonia in children and acute encephalitis in adults (about 1 case per 1000).

Prevention and vaccination

In infants and children, the immunization schedule includes a first dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine at 12 months of age and a second dose before the age of 2 years.

A vaccine catch-up (total of 2 doses of triple vaccine) is recommended for all persons over 24 months of age and born since 1980.

Measles Outbreak in HCMCImage source: sciencebasedmedicine.org

More: Schedule of vaccinations and vaccination recommendations according to the opinion of the High Council of Public Health.

Quarantine of the patient is recommended throughout the contagious period, ie up to 5 days after the onset of the eruption.
The vaccine catch-up, as recommended above, performed within 72 hours after contact with a case can prevent the occurrence of the disease in the vaccinated.

What are the recommendations?

Only vaccination prevents the occurrence of measles.

- Check your vaccination record. Immunization with 2 doses of the MMR vaccine is recommended to anyone born since 1980, or in the absence of a personal history of measles.

If there is no vaccination or incomplete vaccination, consult your doctor.

- In case of contagion with a patient presenting with a measles diagnosis, or in case of fever associated with respiratory signs and/or rash, consult your doctor.

For further information, here is the reference page of the Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs: https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/conseils-aux-voyageurs/conseils-par-pays-destination/vietnam/#sante

Banner Image source: athenahealth.com

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